Improve english with 7 wonders in the world

posted on 14 Jan 2009 22:48 by mew-happy

  

  New 7 wonders in the world

                          

          

         Taj Mahal      INDIA

 

 

 

   The Taj Mahal  is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, built by Mughal

 

Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal . 

 

The Taj Mahal (also "the Taj") is considered the finest example of Mughal

 

architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Ottoman, Indian,

and Islamic architectural styles.

 

 In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was

 

cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired

 

masterpieces of the world's heritage."While the white domed marble mausoleum

 

is its most familiar component, the Taj Mahal is actually an integrated complex

of structures. Building began around 1632 and was completed around1653,

 

and employed thousands of artisans and craftsmen .Ustad Ahmad Lahauri  is

 

generally considered to be the principal designer of the Taj Mahal.

 

Vocabulary

 

craftsman      =  ผู้ชำนาญการ                          artisan          = ช่างฝีมือ

 

emperor         = จักรพรรดิ์                                marble         = หินอ่อน

 

architectural = เชิงสถาปัตยกรรม                     mausoleum = สุสาน

                                  

 

                       

 

                    Petra     JORDAN

 

  

   

    Petra  is an archaeological site in the Arabah, Ma'an Governorate, Jordan,

 lying on the slope of Mount Hor in a basin among the mountains which form

the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba),the large valley running from the

 Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is renowned for its rock-cut architecture.

Petra is also one of the new wonders of the world.The site remained unknown

 

to the Western world until 1812, when it was discovered by Swiss explorer

 

Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. It was famously described as "a rose-red city half

as old as time" in a Newdigate prize-winning sonnet by John William Burgon.

 

 UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties

of man's cultural heritage.In 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage Site.

 

Vocabulary

 

designate         = แต่งตั้งให้เป็น                    flank   =   ด้านข้าง

 

archaeological =  เกี่ยวกับโบราณคดี                  

 

sonnet              =  โคลง 14 บรรทัดซึ่งมีรูปแบบการสัมผัสตายตัว

 

 

                 

   

             Colosseum    ITALY

 

 

 

 

 

     The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum   is an elliptical amphitheatre in the

center of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire.

It is one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.

 

    Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started

between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed

 in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's

 reign (81–96).

   

    Originally capable of seating around 80,000 spectators, the Colosseum

was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles.As well as the

gladiatorial games, other public spectacles were held there, such as mock

 

sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and

 

dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for

 

entertainment in the early medieval era.It was later reused for such purposes

 

as housing , workshops , quarters for a religious orde r, a fortress , a quarry,

 

and a Christian shrine.It has been estimated that about 500,000 people and

 

over a million wild animals died in the Colosseum games.  Although in the

 

21st century it stays partially ruined due to damage caused by devastating

 

earthquakes and stone-robbers , the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of

 

Imperial Rome and its breakthrough achievements in earthquake engineering.  

        It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close

 connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope

 

leads a torchlit    "Way of the Cross" procession to the amphitheatre.

 The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.

 

Vocabulary

 

elliptical =  ซึ่งเป็นรูปไข่,มีรูปทรงคล้ายไข่       amphitheatre = อัฒจันทร์

 

reign     =   ครองแผ่นดิน                                execution  =  การประหารชีวิต

 

medieval =  ในยุคกลาง                                 depict        =  พรรณนา

 

             

 

   

 

 

 

  Machu Picchu   PERU

 

  

 

        Machu Picchu  is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,430 metres

(8,000 ft) above sea level. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the

 

Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 kilometres (50 miles) northwest

 

of Cusco and through which the Urubamba River flows. The river is a

 

partially navigable headwater of the Amazon River. Often referred to as

 

"The Lost City of the Incas",   Machu Picchu is one of the most familiar

symbols of the  Inca Empire. It was built around the year 1460, but

 

was abandoned as an official site for the Inca rulers a hundred years later,

 

at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.

 

Although known locally, it was said to have been forgotten for centuries

when the site was brought to worldwide attention in 1911 by Hiram

 

Bingham,an American historian.Since then, Machu Picchu has become