New 7 wonders in the world
Taj Mahal INDIA
The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, built by Mughal
Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal .
The Taj Mahal (also "the Taj") is considered the finest example of Mughal
architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Ottoman, Indian,
and Islamic architectural styles.
In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was
cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired
masterpieces of the world's heritage."While the white domed marble mausoleum
is its most familiar component, the Taj Mahal is actually an integrated complex
of structures. Building began around 1632 and was completed around1653,
and employed thousands of artisans and craftsmen .Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is
generally considered to be the principal designer of the Taj Mahal.
craftsman = ผู้ชำนาญการ artisan = ช่างฝีมือ
emperor = จักรพรรดิ์ marble = หินอ่อน
architectural = เชิงสถาปัตยกรรม mausoleum = สุสาน
Petra is an archaeological site in the Arabah, Ma'an Governorate, Jordan,
lying on the slope of Mount Hor in a basin among the mountains which form
the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba),the large valley running from the
Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is renowned for its rock-cut architecture.
Petra is also one of the new wonders of the world.The site remained unknown
to the Western world until 1812, when it was discovered by Swiss explorer
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt. It was famously described as "a rose-red city half
as old as time" in a Newdigate prize-winning sonnet by John William Burgon.
UNESCO has described it as "one of the most precious cultural properties
of man's cultural heritage.In 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage Site.
designate = แต่งตั้งให้เป็น flank = ด้านข้าง
archaeological = เกี่ยวกับโบราณคดี
sonnet = โคลง 14 บรรทัดซึ่งมีรูปแบบการสัมผัสตายตัว
The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum is an elliptical amphitheatre in the
center of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire.
It is one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.
Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started
between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed
in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's
Originally capable of seating around 80,000 spectators, the Colosseum
was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles.As well as the
gladiatorial games, other public spectacles were held there, such as mock
sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and
dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for
entertainment in the early medieval era.It was later reused for such purposes
as housing , workshops , quarters for a religious orde r, a fortress , a quarry,
and a Christian shrine.It has been estimated that about 500,000 people and
over a million wild animals died in the Colosseum games. Although in the
21st century it stays partially ruined due to damage caused by devastating
earthquakes and stone-robbers , the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of
Imperial Rome and its breakthrough achievements in earthquake engineering.
It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close
connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope
leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession to the amphitheatre.
The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.
elliptical = ซึ่งเป็นรูปไข่,มีรูปทรงคล้ายไข่ amphitheatre = อัฒจันทร์
reign = ครองแผ่นดิน execution = การประหารชีวิต
medieval = ในยุคกลาง depict = พรรณนา
Machu Picchu PERU
Machu Picchu is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,430 metres
(8,000 ft) above sea level. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the
Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 kilometres (50 miles) northwest
of Cusco and through which the Urubamba River flows. The river is a
partially navigable headwater of the Amazon River. Often referred to as
"The Lost City of the Incas", Machu Picchu is one of the most familiar
symbols of the Inca Empire. It was built around the year 1460, but
was abandoned as an official site for the Inca rulers a hundred years later,
at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.
Although known locally, it was said to have been forgotten for centuries
when the site was brought to worldwide attention in 1911 by Hiram
Bingham,an American historian.Since then, Machu Picchu has become
an important tourist attraction. It has recently come to light that the site
may have been discovered and plundered several years previously, in
1867 by a German businessman, Augusto Berns. In fact, there is
substantial evidence that a British missionary, Thomas Payne, and a
German engineer, J. M. von Hassel, arrived earlier than Hiram, and
maps found by historians show references to Machu Picchu as early
as 1874. Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary
in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in1983.Since it was not
plundered by the Spanish when they conquered the Incas , it is
especially important as a cultural site and it is considered a sacred place.